Aders should note that the constants in Table 1 in organic solvents are for redox potentials referenced to Cp2Fe+/0, because we feel that these are more directly useful than those given previously vs. the standard hydrogen electrode.(7) solvNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptChem Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 8.Warren et al.PageThe calculation of bond dissociation enthalpies from free energy measurements (pKa and E ? is accurate only when there are no significant entropic effects. Specifically, this analysis requires that the entropies of HX and X?are essentially equal [S?HX)solv = S?X?solv].39?order Luteolin 7-O-��-D-glucoside 40414243 This issue was discussed early on by Bordwell, Parker and Tilset,41?243 and entropic contributions were found to be small for the organic and organometallic systems they studied.37,39?0414243 Recently, however, it has been shown that S?HX)solv and S?(X?solv can be very different when the compounds contain high-spin transition metal ions. 39,40 For such species, BDEs cannot be determined from pKa and E?values. With the assumption that S?HX)solv = S?X?solv, the solution BDE can be calculated from pKa and E ?values or from the BDFEsol (eqs 8, 9), with the constant CH given by CG – TS?H?solv. Assuming S ol(HX) = S ol(X?, then(8)NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript(9)Equations 7 and 8 use the thermochemical standard potentials E?which are typically very close to the E1/2 values measured by cyclic voltammetry. Bordwell has also shown that useful values can also often be obtained using electrochemical peak potentials from irreversible cyclic voltammograms.41 However, this introduces an additional uncertainty into the derived values (see Section 4.1). In the thermochemical tables below, it is explicitly noted when the BDFE or BDFE value has been derived using an irreversible peak potential. A more direct way to determine a BDFE is by equilibration with a standard reagent, for instance, measurement of Keq for XH + 2,4,6-tBu3ArO? X?+ 2,4,6-tBu3ArOH. RTln(Keq) is then the difference between the BDFEs of XH and the standard reagent. This approach works very well for stable species such as aminoxyl radicals (Section 5.1) and transition metal complexes (Section 5.10), or for reactions of transients that reach equilibrium faster than they decay. Pedulli and co-workers, for instance, has used this approach to measure the bond strengths in a variety of phenols.56 Kreevoy et al. used equilibration to measure the relative hydride affinities of NAD+ analogs (a type of heterolytic bond strength).57 3.1.1 Solution vs. Gas Phase Bond Strengths–CPET reactivity in solution should be analyzed with solution BDFEs, but common tabulations of bond strengths are gas phase BDEs (as in many organic chemistry NSC309132 site textbooks58). A very extensive tabulation of such BDEs can be found in the recent book by Luo.59 Gas phase BDEs are related to gas phase BDFEs by eq 10, using S (H? = 27.42 cal K-1 mol-1.49 As noted above, for small molecules and organic molecules, S?X? S?XH) because the species are roughly the same size and structure.37,40 For instance, S (HO? – S (H2O) = -1.2 cal mol-1 K-1,49,60 and S (PhO? – S (PhOH) = -0.8 cal mol-1 K-1,61 so in both cases the magnitude of the TS?X? – S?XH) term is less than 0.4 kcal mol-1. Note that when S?X? = S?XH), BDFEg(XH) is 8.17 kcal mol-1 less than the corresponding BDEg(XH).(10)Gas phase BDFEs are related to solution BDFEs as s.Aders should note that the constants in Table 1 in organic solvents are for redox potentials referenced to Cp2Fe+/0, because we feel that these are more directly useful than those given previously vs. the standard hydrogen electrode.(7) solvNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptChem Rev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2011 December 8.Warren et al.PageThe calculation of bond dissociation enthalpies from free energy measurements (pKa and E ? is accurate only when there are no significant entropic effects. Specifically, this analysis requires that the entropies of HX and X?are essentially equal [S?HX)solv = S?X?solv].39?40414243 This issue was discussed early on by Bordwell, Parker and Tilset,41?243 and entropic contributions were found to be small for the organic and organometallic systems they studied.37,39?0414243 Recently, however, it has been shown that S?HX)solv and S?(X?solv can be very different when the compounds contain high-spin transition metal ions. 39,40 For such species, BDEs cannot be determined from pKa and E?values. With the assumption that S?HX)solv = S?X?solv, the solution BDE can be calculated from pKa and E ?values or from the BDFEsol (eqs 8, 9), with the constant CH given by CG – TS?H?solv. Assuming S ol(HX) = S ol(X?, then(8)NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript(9)Equations 7 and 8 use the thermochemical standard potentials E?which are typically very close to the E1/2 values measured by cyclic voltammetry. Bordwell has also shown that useful values can also often be obtained using electrochemical peak potentials from irreversible cyclic voltammograms.41 However, this introduces an additional uncertainty into the derived values (see Section 4.1). In the thermochemical tables below, it is explicitly noted when the BDFE or BDFE value has been derived using an irreversible peak potential. A more direct way to determine a BDFE is by equilibration with a standard reagent, for instance, measurement of Keq for XH + 2,4,6-tBu3ArO? X?+ 2,4,6-tBu3ArOH. RTln(Keq) is then the difference between the BDFEs of XH and the standard reagent. This approach works very well for stable species such as aminoxyl radicals (Section 5.1) and transition metal complexes (Section 5.10), or for reactions of transients that reach equilibrium faster than they decay. Pedulli and co-workers, for instance, has used this approach to measure the bond strengths in a variety of phenols.56 Kreevoy et al. used equilibration to measure the relative hydride affinities of NAD+ analogs (a type of heterolytic bond strength).57 3.1.1 Solution vs. Gas Phase Bond Strengths–CPET reactivity in solution should be analyzed with solution BDFEs, but common tabulations of bond strengths are gas phase BDEs (as in many organic chemistry textbooks58). A very extensive tabulation of such BDEs can be found in the recent book by Luo.59 Gas phase BDEs are related to gas phase BDFEs by eq 10, using S (H? = 27.42 cal K-1 mol-1.49 As noted above, for small molecules and organic molecules, S?X? S?XH) because the species are roughly the same size and structure.37,40 For instance, S (HO? – S (H2O) = -1.2 cal mol-1 K-1,49,60 and S (PhO? – S (PhOH) = -0.8 cal mol-1 K-1,61 so in both cases the magnitude of the TS?X? – S?XH) term is less than 0.4 kcal mol-1. Note that when S?X? = S?XH), BDFEg(XH) is 8.17 kcal mol-1 less than the corresponding BDEg(XH).(10)Gas phase BDFEs are related to solution BDFEs as s.