Re studies. Identifying foods and ingredients (e.g. MFGM), as well as meal patterns (e.g. six small meals vs. three larger meals), which can suppress bone resorption for a longer period in the postprandial state, may lead to osteoporosis prevention strategies in the long term. Additionally, it is possible that MFGM may have interacted with other ingredients or nutrients in the meal to give the observed response. The possible interactive effects of MFGM with other food ingredients, as well as the effects of MFGM on longer-term bone outcomes such as BMD, will require further investigation.Conclusions In this exploratory study, we have shown that bone resorption (as measured by the biomarker CTX) is significantly suppressed in the postprandial state, PD173074 web particularly after consumption of high SFA meals that contain MFGM. However, MFGM was not found to be a direct moderator of the CTX response. To further elucidate the potential role of inflammation in postprandial bone turnover, future studies based on our observations should 1) match test meals for individual fatty acids and micronutrients as well as macronutrients, 2) include measurements of postprandial bile acids, incretin hormones and insulin, and 3) assess interactions of MFGM with other food ingredients. Additional filesAdditional file 1: Nutrient composition of test meals. (DOCX 21 kb) Additional file 2: Test meal ingredient list. (DOCX 14 kb) Additional file 3: Correlations of CTX and selected metabolic variables after intake of high saturated fat test meals. (DOCX 17 kb) Abbreviations MFGM: Milk fat globule membrane; PO: Palm oil; PPI: Postprandial inflammation; WC: Whipping cream; WHNRC: Western Human Nutrition Research Center Acknowledgements Fonterra Co-operative Group Ltd (New Zealand) for supplying the BPC50 product for use in this study; USDA-ARS-Western Human Nutrition Research Center kitchen personnel, Dustin Burnett, Sara Dowling and Julie Edwards; phlebotomist, Jerome Crawford; physiologist, Mary Gustafson; statistician, Janet M. Peerson; and molecular biologist, Pieter Oort. The US Department of Agriculture is an equal opportunity employer and provider. Funding This study was supported by the National Dairy Council (contract # 1175.15) and the USDA-ARS Western Human Nutrition Research Center. The founding sponsors had no role in the design of the study, in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of the data, in the writing of the manuscript and in the decision to publish the results. Availability of data and materials The datasets used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request. Authors’ contributions TSR contributed to the experimental and statistical work and prepared the first draft of the paper. She is guarantor. ED, NR and ERG contributed to the experimental work of this study. JBG, JTS, AMZ and MDVL designed the study. All authors revised the paper critically for intellectual content and approved the final version. All authors agree to be accountable for the work and to ensure that any questions relating to the accuracy and integrity PubMed ID:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28212752 of the paper are investigated and properly resolved. Authors’ information Not applicable Competing interests AMZ received a stipend from the National Dairy Council to present a talk at a symposium in 2013. At the time of data collected and analysis ED was a doctoral student at the University of California Davis and had no COI to disclose; currently ED is employed by Natio.