Clopidogrel), the sCD40L-induced neuroinflammation and TNF- release were reversed . In agreement with this, improved sCD40L levels have already been found in individuals with hypertension , T2DM [93,94], obesity  and MetS [94,969]. These final results suggest that platelet sCD40LBiomolecules 2021, 11,7 ofis a important mediator of astrocyte and microglia activation, neuroinflammation, and in distinct hyperlinks platelet-derived sCD40L with neuroinflammatory responses within the brain in MetS. Furthermore, excessive CCL5 expression can lead to high levels of neuroinflammation by way of the activation of microglia, which can evolve into neurodegenerative processes (for critique ). Moreover, neuroinflammatory processes can induce activated platelet accumulation in brain parenchyma , and it was shown that astroglial and neuronal lipid rafts induced platelet degranulation and secretion of neurotransmitter, serotonin [101,102] and Cyclothiazide MedChemExpress pro-inflammatory components like platelet-activating element (PAF) . In detail, regulatory serotonin is released by activated platelets from dense granules , while PAF is mainly expressed around the surface of platelet-derived microvesicles  and exerts a pro-inflammatory part . Notably, microvesicles have the prospective to cross the BBB; interestingly, this potential movement is bidirectional . These findings recommend that platelets have a role in the regulation of neuroinflammation. As a consequence, chemokines and cytokines released by platelets have essential roles inside the regulation of pro-inflammatory processes in the BBB, inducing neuroinflammatory processes and, when present in excessive amounts, even leading to neurodegeneration. In parallel, obesity and MetS are associated with a reduction in myelin and microstructural alterations in white matter [107,108] and with an improved level of white matter hyperintensities in the brain [109,110]. On top of that, Fluorometholone Glucocorticoid Receptor metabolic dysfunction induces oligodendrocyte loss  and structural defects in myelin sheaths in the central nervous method . PDGF or PAF could have an effect on myelinization; for example, PDGF signalling is crucial to oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination inside the central nervous technique . PAF is developed by several different cells, but specially these involved in host defence, which include platelets, endothelial cells, neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages. Thus, PAF can activate platelets by binding to their G-protein-coupled PAF receptor and upon activation by other components (e.g., thrombi), platelets synthesize and secrete PAF . An in vitro experiment showed that administration with the biologically active lipid metabolite, PAF C-16, resulted in a important amount of apoptosis in cultured oligodendrocytes and astrocytes through activation from the caspase-3 pathway . Subsequent to this, PAF functions as a important messenger in neurone-microglial interactions . All in all, sCD40L can induce neuroinflammation by astrocytosis and activation of microglia, whereas PDGF and PAF modulate myelinization by way of apoptosis and oligodendrocyte differentiation. As a result, platelet-derived compounds for instance cytokines, chemokines and growth things (e.g., sCD40L, PDGF and PAF) influence neuroinflammation and myelinization. These findings highlight the crucial role of platelets in neurovascular processes and strain the prospective detrimental effects of hyperactivated platelets for the duration of MetS. four. Nutritional Compounds in Platelet Activation Dietary bioactive compounds (e.g., n-.