Nd SOD2 of 16 10 showed when in comparison with untreated samples at virtually all the tested and HSP70, however, did not show any relevant variatio a important enhance, when in comparison to untreated samples at practically all of the tested the untreated manage. Taking other hand, didthese final results indicate that PS concentrations. GSTP1 and HSP70, on the together, not show any relevant variations when compared stress-related genes’ expression under long-term the oxidative for the untreated control. Taking together, these outcomes indicate that expPSNPs considerably alter the oxidative stress-related genes’ expression below long-term exposure regimes.Figure 6. Study of Caco-2 cells’ response just after 24 h and 8 weeks of PSNPs exposure using Real-Time RT-PCR. The percentage for each and every compared Figure 6. Study of of expression mean response immediately after 24 hdose and analyzed by per Caco-2 cells’ gene is showntreatment to untreated controls, the and 8 weeks of PSNPs dose and gene. Data are presented as SEM for each and every Time RT-PCR. 0.05, percentage 0.001. student’s t-test. p The p 0.01, p of expression for every single gene is shown comptrols,Genotoxic and and gene. Data are presented as imply SEM for every treatm 3.six. per dose Oxidative DNA Harm by the student’s t-test. p 0.05, p 0.01, p 0.001. PSNPs was examThe Atpenin A5 Cancer prospective genotoxic impact of short- and long-term exposures toined using the comet assay to detect single and double-strand breaks, also as oxidative DNA damage. The comet assay revealed low levels of genotoxic and oxidative DNA dam3.6. Genotoxic and Oxidative DNA Harm Only the 0.26 /cm2 -treated age, both for cells exposed to PSNPs for 24 h and eight weeks. sample right after eight weeks of exposure showed a considerable increase within the genotoxic damage The prospective genotoxic impact of short- and long-term exposu observed when compared to the untreated cells (Figure 7A). The slight variations within the genotoxic harm the comet assay to detect single significantly unique amined applying observed right after the short-term exposure had been notand double-strand br from these observed within the handle group. As for the oxidative DNA damage (Figure 7B), Caco-2 tive DNA damage.the highest PSNPs concentration presented anlevels of genotox cells exposed for 24 h to the comet assay revealed low improved amount of harm each for cells exposed to PSNPs samples. Having said that, these damage, when in comparison to that identified in negative manage for 24 h and 8 weeks. variations didn’t Methotrexate disodium In stock attain statistical significance. Summarizing, these benefits show that cells treated to PSNPs forafter 8h weeks ofdo not raise their levels ofa considerable inc exposed sample both 24 and 8 weeks exposure showed genotoxic and oxidative observed damage DNA damage. when in comparison with the untreated cells (Figure 7Ain the genotoxic harm observed after the short-term exposure diverse from these seen inside the manage group. As for the oxidative 7B), Caco-2 cells exposed for 24 h for the highest PSNPs concentr creased degree of damage when when compared with that found in unfavorable ever, these variations didn’t attain statistical significance. Summ show that cells exposed to PSNPs for both 24 h and eight weeks do not genotoxic and oxidative DNA harm.Biomolecules 2021, 11, x FOR PEER Review Biomolecules 2021, 11, x FOR PEER REVIEWBiomolecules 2021, 11,11 of 16 11 of11 ofFigure 7. Genotoxic (A) and oxidative (B) DNA harm in Caco-2 cells just after 24 h and eight weeks of PSNPs exposure, as evidenced by comet assay. Data represent the p.