Lice from 11-months-old GFAP-EGFP mice Cortical Nipecotic acid GABA Receptor astrocytes isolated from adult GFAP-EGFP mice Cortical astrocytes isolated from adult mice iGluR Pharmacology Bath-applied Bath-applied Bath-applied Patch-applied Patch-applied Bath-applied Receptor Functionality iGluRs (variety not specified) NMDARs AMPARs NMDARs NMDARs NMDARs AMPARs NMDARs NMDARs AMPAR NMDAR NMDAR NMDAR Reference Porter et al., 1996.  Pasti et al., 1997.  Shelton et al., 1999.  Schipke et al., 2001.  Serrano et al., 2008.  Hamilton et al., 2008. Patch-appliedFmoc-Ile-OH-15N Technical Information Palygin et al., 2010. Patch-applied Patch-applied Bath-appliedLalo et al., 2011.  Palygin et al., 2011.  Lalo et al., 2014. Biomolecules 2021, 11,8 ofTable two. Cont. Astrocyte Preparation Brain slices and acutely isolated cortical astrocytes from 359-day-old GFAP-EGFP mice Olfactory bulb slice from 141-day-old Aldh1l1-eGFP mice Somatosensory neocortex slice from 210-day-old-rats Olfactory bulb slice from 82-day-old GFAP-EGFP and GLAST-CreERT2-GCaMP6sfl/fl mice iGluR Pharmacology Bath-applied Receptor Functionality NMDARs AMPARs NMDARs NMDARs Reference Dzamba et al., 2015. Bath-applied Patch-appliedOtsu et al., 2015.  Mehina et al., 2017. Bath-appliedAMPARsDroste et al., 2017. Although iGluR agonists evoke Ca2+ transients in astrocytes in culture and brain slices, most studies have focussed on somatic Ca2+ events. It can be still unclear if these receptors contribute to astrocyte MCEs within fine processes, specifically through regional circuit activity. Numerous studies have distinguished in between Ca2+ responses in various cellular compartments (processes versus soma) by combining Ca2+ imaging dyes with GFAP-eGFP transgenic mice to far better label astrocytes [110,128,129]. However, GECIs are now by far the most reliable strategy to detect astrocyte Ca2+ events in fine structures. Utilizing GCaMP3 and GCaMP6f, Haustein et al.  showed that NMDAR blocker, D-AP5, didn’t alter spontaneous astrocyte MCEs in the hippocampus, which indicates that astrocyte NMDAR might only be activated during nearby synaptic activity. Topical superfusion of AMPA or NMDA receptor antagonists around the brain, significantly lowered slow-onset MCEs in astrocyte endfeet evoked by whisker-stimulation, suggesting that iGluR signalling contributes to these Ca2+ events . In comparable studies, quick onset MCEs in astrocyte fine processes and endfeet had been identified in response to stimulation in the contralateral ramus infraorbitalis from the trigeminal nerve [30,31], that is physiologically equivalent to sensory stimulation. The quickly astrocyte Ca2+ responses happened on the similar time scale as neurons and preceded nearby vasodilation. Blockers for AMPA or NMDA receptors have been applied directly to the brain and each drugs reduced fast Ca2+ events in astrocyte processes, but only CNQX reduced rapidly Ca2+ events in endfeet . This suggests that iGluR signalling could mediate rapid astrocyte MCEs that have the capacity to contribute to blood flow. The key drawback of all these studies of iGluRs and MCEs is the fact that the pharmacological approaches employed most likely impacted each neuron and astrocyte receptors [28,30], generating it unclear whether the drugs have direct effects on astrocyte iGluRs or if the influence on MCE activity was merely triggered by decreased neuronal activity. Future operate specifically targeting astrocyte iGluRs by genetic approaches will assist to tease apart a role for these receptors in astrocyte MCE signalling, includ.