Dried. three.three. Characterization of Treated Seaweed and Extracted Agar three.three.1. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) G. lemaneiformis samples collected after every process have been DNQX disodium salt manufacturer subjected to vacuum freeze drying (Telstar, LyoQuest-85, Terrassa, Spain) for around 24 h. The morphology of samples was then analyzed by SEM (Hitachi, S-4800, Tokyo, Japan). three.three.two. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) The agar samples had been blended with KBr powder and pressed into thin slices. The FT-IR spectrum of samples was recorded by utilizing a FT-IR spectrophotometer (Thermo Fisher, Nicolet iS50, Waltham, MA, USA) in a wavelength range from 4000 to 500 cm-1 . three.3.3. Determination of Physicochemical Properties The sulfate content material of agar samples was measured turbidimetrically utilizing BaCl2 -gelatin method immediately after hydrolysis in 0.5 M HCl as PF-06873600 Autophagy described by Yarnpakdee et al. . 1st, a 0.5 gelatin remedy was ready and placed inside a four C refrigerator overnight. Subsequently, 1 BaCl2 was added towards the option, mixed completely, and left to stand for a number of hours. Around 0.1 g of agar samples was transferred in a colorimetric tube, and 25 mL of 1 M HCl was added. The colorimetric tube was placed in a water bath at one hundred C and digested for 5 h. Soon after cooling the tube to area temperature, activated carbon was added for decolorization from the sample, and the digestive fluid was filtered. K2 SOMar. Drugs 2021, 19,16 ofwas dried to a constant weight at 105 C. Around 0.1088 g of K2 SO4 was accurately weighed, and dissolved with one hundred mL of 1 M HCl. The standard curve was drawn with 1 mL of different concentrations of K2 SO4 common solution mixed with 3 mL of gelatin-BaCl2 remedy. The absorbance was measured at 360 nm following blending for ten min. Ultimately, the absorbance of the sample was measured at 360 nm, plus the sulfate content was calculated employing the common curve. three,6-AG content was determined colorimetrically employing the resorcinol-acetal strategy as described by Yaphe et al. . Initially, 1.five mg/mL resorcinol solution was ready, and 0.04 (v/v) 1,1-acetal answer was stored at four C within the refrigerator. Approximately 9 mL of resorcinol option, 1 mL of 1,1- diethoxyethane option, and 100 mL of 12 M concentrated HCl have been mixed in to the solution before evaluation. Subsequently, 1 mL of the sample remedy was extracted and placed in an ice bath for five min, and 5 mL of resorcinol reagent was sufficiently mixed into the sample remedy. The mixture was placed in a water bath at 80 C for 15 min, transferred in an ice bath for 1.5 min, and measured at a wavelength of 554 nm. Ultimately, the 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose content material was calculated utilizing the fructose typical curve. Gel strength of agar samples (1.5 , w/v) was determined applying techniques described by Lee et al. . A 1.five (w/v) agar answer was prepared and heated until totally dissolved. The gel strength was determined by pouring the answer into a Petri dish and setting it aside overnight at 20 C. The gel strength was measured inside 20 s and calculated as gram per square centimeter. Melting and gelling temperature of agar samples (1.five , w/v) were analyzed utilizing techniques described by Freile-Pelegrin et al. . Melting temperature on the gel in test tubes was measured by putting a glass bead (five mm diameter) on the gel surface. The test tube rack with test tube was transferred towards the water bath at boiling temperature. The melting temperature was recorded with a digital thermometer when the be.