The Total preprints, policy documents, patents and datasets (Figure three). A total of 48,135 investigation Atmosphere (N = 1472; 3 ); Lecture Notes in Computer system Science (N = 122; 2 ); and Frontiers research were published in 199 journals, mostly in PLOS One (N = 1538; 3 ), Science of in Marine Science (N = 1219; two ). These benefits are consistent with Costa et al. (2020) , the Total Environment (N = 1472; 3 ); Lecture Notes in Computer system Science (N = 122; two ); and who analyzed deepsea biodiversity utilizing the science mapping approach to deliver a Frontiers in Marine Science (N = 1219; two ). These outcomes are constant with Costa et al. systematic and global bibliometric evaluation in regards to the studied subject. (2020) , who analyzed deep-sea biodiversity working with the science mapping Pinacidil Cancer strategy to supply a systematic and worldwide bibliometric evaluation about the studied subject.Figure three. The percentage and type of documents corresponding to our search query for deep-sea and Figure three. The percentage and form of documents corresponding to our search query for deepsea ecosystem solutions. and ecosystem services.The visualization map with the documents published in between 2012 and 2021 (Figure 4a) shows the range of keyword phrases and their co-occurrences connected to deep-sea ecosystem services. Co-occurrences are utilized to know the underlying patterns with the document set under investigation . In total, 291 terms were presented and grouped into five clusters, with 29,643 hyperlinks plus a total hyperlink strength of 307,534. The main keyword co-occurrences for the red cluster (red circles in Figure 4a) are management (20(S)-Hydroxycholesterol Biological Activity co-occurrence: 611), approach (co-occurrence: 654), ecosystem solutions (co-occurrence: 562) and assessment (co-occurrence: 475), followed by the green circles, for which the main keywords and phrases are diversity (co-occurrence: 636), abundance (co-occurrence: 592), concentration (co-occurrence: 565) and sediment (cooccurrence: 480). The main subject corresponding for the third cluster (blue circles) is climate change, exactly where the principle search phrases are temperature (co-occurrence: 478) and warming (cooccurrence: 122). The main keywords associated to the yellow cluster are carbon sequestration (co-occurrences: 240) and sea-level rise (co-occurrences: 176). The fifth cluster is primarily associated to biodiversity (co-occurrence: 566), biomass (co-occurrence: 400) and ecosystem function (co-occurrence: 218). Every cluster covers the following subjects: (i) The ecosystem solutions and goods, management and assessment tools and approaches cluster (red cluster in Figure 4a; 98 terms) reveals that the research on ocean governance and conservation and also the assessment of deep-sea ecosystem services are comparatively advanced. Such research mainly concentrate on laws and regulations regarding the exploration and exploitation of deep-sea resources, specially oil and gas and deep-sea minerals. How-Sustainability 2021, 13,six ofever, the occurrence of search phrases like “knowledge” (co-occurrence: 286), “knowledge gap” (co-occurrence: 58), “gap” (co-occurrence: 110), “challenge” (co-occurrence: 242) and “uncertainty” (co-occurrence: 111) demonstrate that researchers are still investigating how to overcome the lack of knowledge related for the field of “deep-sea ecosystem services”, which can be the principle concern against, as an example, the development of deep-sea mining. (ii) The deep-sea sediments, contamination and microplastic pollution cluster (green cluster in Figure 4a; 82 terms) mostly refers to studies rel.