E (LMWL). Fog water was collected working with a self-made V-shaped collector (Figure S1a). The collector was set up at 1 m height and a circular rain shield (0.6 m in diameter) was mounted around the top rated of the fog collector to prevent vertical precipitation (i.e., rainwater) from entering the collector . Fog water samples have been collected through a dense fog event amongst 8:00 to 9:00 ahead of the isotope fractionation takes place from re-evaporation [50,51]. Meanwhile, the rainwater was collected making use of a cylindrical collector Alvelestat custom synthesis measuring 0.65 m in height and 0.two m in diameter (Figure S1b),Water 2021, 13,five ofwith a 15 cm diameter funnel-shaped draining to a 1 L polyethylene bottle. All rainwater samples had been collected quickly right after a rainfall event or early within the morning following overnight rainfall. Through the experiment period, the fog water and rainwater samples were collected daily on days with fog and rain events (a total of seven fog events and five rainfall events occurred) within the study internet site. All of the fog and rain samples have been stored instantly in 2 mL screw-cap glass vials, sealed with parafilm, and frozen ( C) inside the refrigerator until water extraction making use of cryogenic vacuum distillation. Also, samples for all rainfall events among March 2018 to March 2019 had been collected immediately after the precipitation events (eight:00) to analyze the LMWL. For every repetition of epiphyte species for 13 C evaluation, all wholesome and fully expanded mature leaves (one hundred) were collected from a host tree on the dates of plant tissue collection. The chosen epiphyte samples were collected around the exact same day of sample collection for water source evaluation on the identical day. The humus or litter on the surface with the leaves have been gently cleaned superficially with a filter paper, oven-dried at 70 C for 48 h to a continuous mass, homogenized and ground to fine powder to pass through a one hundred esh sieve and stored straight away in 2 mL screw-cap glass vials, sealed with parafilm, then subsampled until 13 C evaluation in the laboratory . two.3. Isotope Measurements The UCB-5307 Biological Activity liquid water from plant samples and humus (0.five mL per sample) was extracted making use of the ultra-low temperature (-196 C) automatic vacuum condensation and extraction technique (LI-2100, Lica United Technology Restricted Inc., Beijing, China). All samples were filtered using an injection syringe fitted with a filter (pore size 0.22 ) during this approach. Then, the two H and 18 O of liquid water (like plant tissues water, humus, fog water and rainwater) have been determined applying the DELTA-V-Advantage isotope ratio mass spectrometer (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Bremen, Germany) combined having a high-temperature conversion elemental analyzer. To prevent any “memory effect”, each and every sample was analyzed four occasions using the final 3 injections made use of for calculations . The determination of 13 C in leaf samples was carried out working with a flash combustion elemental analyzer (Flash EA) coupled with the DELTA-V-Advantage isotope ratio mass spectrometer (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Bremen, Germany) within the Thermo Fisher Scientific, Shanghai, China. The precision in the 2 H, 18 O, and 13 C measurements have been 1, 0.two, and 0.15, respectively. Isotope composition (2 H, 18 O, and 13 C) of unknown samples have been addressed for the Vienna-Standard Mean Ocean Water (V-SMOW) and the Vienna-standard Pee Dee Belemnite (V-PDB): two HOsample= ( Rsample /RVSMOW – 1) (1) (two)13 Cleaf = ( R leaf /RPDB – 1) where Rsample may be the isotope ratio (two H/1 H, 18 O/16 O) of a water sam.