Urban and KMA-rural was located. The LPI in KMA-urban changed from 19.8 in 1996 to 35.5 in 2016, whereas the LPI of KMA-rural reached 3.3 in 2016 from 0.two in 1996. With regards to percentage, through the study period (1996016) over KMA, the LPI grew by about 85 , whereas in KMA-urban and KMA-rural it grew by 79.0 and 1561.1 , respectively. Thus, the price of LPI growth in KMA-rural was much larger than that of KMAurban, which could be attributed for the phenomenon of urban sprawl along the peripheryRemote Sens. 2021, 13,16 ofof KMA-urban. The land cover of mixed built-up revealed an anomalous trend in LPI among KMA-urban and KMA-rural. In between 1996 and 2016, the LPI in KMA-urban grew negatively by -75.0 , though the LPI of mixed built-up grew by 203.eight in KMA-rural over the exact same period (Figure ten). The unfavorable growth of your LPI of mixed built-up cover explains the transformation of mixed built-up into built-up cover due to the processes of densification and infill of current built-up patches within the mixed built-up category, whereas the existence of higher good development in the LPI of mixed built-up cover over KMA-rural signifies the recent fast and dispersed urban development together with peri-urban regions.Figure 10. Class level LPI and AREA_MN; (a ) show class level LPI for the LULCs more than KMA, KMA-urban, and KMA-rural, respectively, in 1996, 2006, and 2016; and (d ) reflects class level temporal trend in AREA_MN over KMA, KMA-urban, and KMA-rural, respectively, in 1996, 2006, and 2016.The AREA_MN of the built-up class was significantly larger in KMA-urban as in comparison to KMA-rural. Figure 10 shows the results obtained by LPI and AREA_MN metrics. In KMA-urban, the AREA_MN on the built-up class PF-05105679 Neuronal Signaling enhanced from 9.8 m2 in 2006 to 12.4 m2 in 2016, whereas in KMA-rural, the AREA_MN in the built-up class was 1.1 m2 in 2006 and 1.9 m2 in 2016. Surprisingly, in the course of the study period, i.e., 1996016, the AREA_MN grew by 19.5 in urban regions of KMA, although the identical index in KMA-rural grew by 116.7 in the exact same period indicating the phenomenon of fast built-up development in KMA-rural. The outcome of AREA_MN of mixed built-up cover over KMA-rural reveals that the mean size of mixed built-up patches grew slowly with time, changing to 1.52 m2 in 2016 from 1.4 m2 in 1996 using a growth rate of 8.9 . Having said that, through exactly the same period, the AREA_MN of mixed built-up over KMA-urban decreased from 2.eight m2 in 1996 to 1.4 m2 in 2016, characterized by a growth price of about -49.1 . This anomaly reflects the conversion of mixed built-up over KMA-urban and accumulation of new built-up over KMA-rural. The shape complexity of built-up and mixed built-up categories was computed making use of the Shape_MN and PAFRAC. As reflected in Figure 10, In KMA-urban, the shape complexity of the built-up class decreased from 1.27 in 1996 to 1.23 in 2016, signifying that the built-up category is becoming fairly far more PSB-603 Protocol compact with time. Nevertheless, the index increased a little bit from 1.22 in 1996 to 1.23 in 2006, followed by a lower to 1.21 in 2016. As a result, the shape complexity of built-up development remains extra or much less uniform more than both KMA-urban and KMA-rural. Having said that, the Shape_MN in KMA-rural showed a bit a lot more variability as compared to KMA-urban. The results of mixed built-up Shape_MN showed that over the KMA, the index elevated from 1.27 (2006) to 1.29 (2016). Nevertheless, spatiotemporal dynamics inside the Shape_MN had been evident across KMA-urban andRemote Sens. 2021, 13,17 ofKMA-rural. Figure 11 reflects a.