Vey the diversity inside the T cell compartment and assess the influence of checkpoint blockade on the frequencies of distinct T cell populations. Broadly, each checkpoint blockade responsive and non-responsive immune clusters were identified, including those that expanded and contracted following treatment (n = 6 to 7 per group; p 0.05). Conclusions These results indicate that deep profiling of tumor immune infiltrates making use of mass cytometry can determine biologically relevant populations inside a complete and unsupervised manner. These information support our understanding that CTLA-4 and PD-1 regulate T cell activity via distinct mechanisms. Further investigation in to the identity and Death Receptor 4 Proteins Biological Activity functional requirement of the identified subsets is expected and can support to further elucidate the mechanism of action of individual checkpoint blockade therapies.Acknowledgements We acknowledge the MDACC core facility NCI Help Grant P30CA16672. References 1. Sharma P, Allison JP: The future of immune checkpoint therapy. Science 2015, 348:561. two. Topalian SL, Drake CG, Pardoll DM; Immune checkpoint blockade: a widespread denominator approach to cancer therapy. Cancer Cell 2015, 27:45061. 3. Tanner SD, Baranov VI, Ornatsky OI, Bandura DR, George TC. An introduction to mass cytometry: fundamentals and applications. CeII 2013, 62:95565.Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2016, 4(Suppl 1):Page 178 ofSurvivorship Problems Connected to ImmunotherapyP335 Neutrophil count predicts survival in patients on ipilimumab with radiation Clark Anderson, Chad Tang, Jonathan Schoenhals, Efrosini Tsouko, John Heymach, Patricia de Groot, Joe Chang, Kenneth R Hess, Adi Diab, Padmanee Sharma, James Allison, Aung Naing, David Hong, James Welsh University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Correspondence: Clark Anderson ([email protected]) Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2016, 4(Suppl 1):P335 Background Neutrophils can have immunosuppressive effects, as well as the neutrophilto-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a negative prognostic marker in some cancers. We analyzed regardless of whether immune cells can predict outcome in patients enrolled in an ongoing clinical trial of radiation plus ipilimumab (NCT 02239900). We hypothesized that patients with greater absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC) or decreased neutrophil counts (NC) may have increased survival. Procedures Information were IFN-lambda 3/IL-28B Proteins Biological Activity available from 74 individuals. Blood samples for NC and ALC were collected at baseline, at the end of therapy, and instantly before just about every cycle of ipilimumab. Tumor size was measured by CT scan at baseline, involving cycles two and three of ipilimumab, and just about every 1 months thereafter and response was classified by the immune response criteria (ir-RC). Details on physique weight was extracted starting six months before therapy through the end of treatment. Continuous and discrete variables had been analyzed with Spearman correlations and Fisher’s exact test. All round survival was compared by way of log-rank test and hazard ratios obtained by Cox proportional evaluation. Normally reported cut-points applied have been 5 for NLR and 5×109/L for NC. Associations were viewed as important at p 0.05; all tests have been two-sided. Outcomes Baseline NC correlated with tumor growth (rho = 0.312, p = 0.0069). Higher baseline NC (five x 109/L) was a considerable danger factor for progressive disease (odds ratio = four.83, p = 0.0034); 9 out of 28 individuals with high baseline NC had a greatest response of stable illness or partial response versus 32 out from the 46 patients wit.