G testosterone levels may well contribute to this variation in semen quality . Even though elephants will not be considered seasonal breeders, they routinely enter a cyclic heightened physiological state named `musth’ that may be characterized by elevated testosterone levels . Testosterone is necessary to preserve spermatogenesis  and influences semen high-quality in lots of species . Even so, it is actually plausible that exponentially heightened levels of testosterone during musth might exert a detrimental effect on testicular and/or accessory gland function. In our study even so, bulls weren’t collectedduring musth resulting from the heightened aggressive and unpredictable behavior that is definitely linked with this physiologic state. Moreover, everyday variation in semen good quality was frequently observed no matter musth. We, as a result, postulate that sperm excellent in elephants is influenced by other components apart from musth or adjustments in hormones. Great motility ejaculates consistently expressed higher pH than their poor motility counterparts. Studies NF-κB Synonyms within the bull, dog, rat, hamster, guinea pig, and human species have revealed enhanced spermatozoa motility in additional alkaline environments , and decreases in pH below physiological levels happen to be reported to exert a detrimental impact on sperm motility [24,25]. The results of this study recommend that elephant spermatozoa could possibly be highlyFigure five. Immunodetection of lactotransferrin in elephant seminal Thyroid Hormone Receptor web plasma samples. Panels A, B, and C represent numerous immunoblots following 1D SDS-PAGE protein separation. E1-E6 denote individual Asian elephant bulls. G1 by way of G11 represent seminal plasma samples obtained from ejaculates exhibiting good motility ( 65 tMOT). P1 via P17 represent seminal plasma samples obtained from ejaculates exhibiting poor motility (#10 tMOT). M1 represents a seminal plasma sample obtained from ejaculates exhibiting moderate motility (45 tMOT). CON: liver handle. Approximately 85 with the seminal plasma samples from ejaculates exhibiting great motility had been positive for the presence of lactotransferrin. Conversely, lactotransferrin was undetected in more than 90 of seminal plasma samples from ejaculates exhibiting poor motility. doi:ten.1371/journal.pone.0071033.gPLOS A single | plosone.orgLactotransferrin in Elephant Seminal Plasmasusceptible to changes in pH resulting within a sharp decline in motility. We also found that a higher proportion of ejaculates (55 ) exhibited overt urine contamination, which was also observed in other studies [3,9,26]. Ejaculates with urine contamination results in reduced sperm motility, in huge portion, as a consequence of changes in pH and osmolality [24,25,27]. Thus, in the present study, we utilized CRT and UUN as markers for detecting low levels of urine contamination that might not have already been overtly observed. We found no differences in CRT and UUN involving seminal plasma from good versus poor motility samples, and there was no partnership among sperm motility ( tMOT and pMOT) with either CRT or UUN. These outcomes recommend that urine contamination was not the key issue that influenced sperm motility in ejaculates utilized inside the existing study. Seminal plasma enzymes, for example ALT, AST, AP, LDH, and CPK are significant for sperm metabolism and regulate sperm motility, fertility, and enhanced sperm survival and as a result, have been applied as diagnostic markers for semen excellent [15,28]. Although we didn’t obtain considerable differences in AST, AP, or LDH amongst excellent and poor motility ejaculates, o.